Pat McNees and Debbie Brodsky talk about what personal histories are, and what personal historians do, and why Tell your story now. But you can either run from it, or learn from it.
Table of Unicode Berber Latin alphabet letters used in Kabyle. The first systematic attempts to adapt the Latin script to African languages were probably those of Christian missionaries on the eve of European colonization Pasch These however were isolated, done by people without linguistic training, and sometimes resulted in competing systems for the same or similar languages.
One of the challenges in adapting the Latin script to many African languages was the use in those tongues of sounds unfamiliar to Europeans and thus without writing convention they could resort to. Various use was made of letter combinations, modifications, and diacritics do represent such sounds.
Some resulting orthographies, such as the Yoruba writing system established by the late 19th century, have remained largely intact. In many cases, the colonial regimes had little interest in the writing of African languages, but in others they did. In the case of Hausa in Northern Nigeriafor instance, the colonial government was directly involved in determining the written forms for the language.
Since the colonial period, there have been efforts to propose and promulgate standardized or at least harmonized approaches to using the Latin script for African languages. Following independence there has been continued attention to the transcription of African languages.
In the s and s, UNESCO facilitated several "expert meetings" on the subject, including a seminal meeting in Bamako inand one in Niamey in The latter produced the African reference alphabet.
Various country-level standardizations have also been made or proposed, such as the Pan-Nigerian alphabet. A Berber Latin alphabet for northern Berber includes extended Latin characters and two Greek letters. Such discussions continue, especially on more local scales regarding cross-border languages.
Hebrew[ edit ] There has been a Jewish presence in North Africa for millennia, with communities speaking a variety of different languages. Though some of these are written with the Arabic script or Ge'ez, many- including Haketia and several forms of Judeo-Arabic - have made frequent or exclusive use of the Hebrew alphabet.
There were apparently some typewriters fitted with keys for typing Nigerian languages. Aroundthe English typewriter was modified by Ayana Birru of Ethiopia to type an incomplete and ligated version of the Amharic alphabet.
This was done without any kind of system or standardization, meaning incompatibility of encodings. Unicode in principle resolves the issue of incompatible encoding, but other questions such as the handling of diacritics in extended Latin scripts are still being raised.
Writing African History (paperback). Writing African History is an essential work for anyone who wants to write, or even seriously read, African history. The Great Migration was the relocation of more than 6 million African Americans from the rural South to the cities of the North, Midwest and West from about to Driven from their homes. Black History Facts & Worksheets Black history is the portion of American history that specifically discusses the African-American or Black American ethnic groups in the United States. Most African Americans are the descendants of African slaves brought to the United States from to
These in turn relate to fundamental decisions regarding orthographies of African languages. In recent years, OsmanyaTifinagh and N'Ko have been added to Unicode, as have individual characters to other ranges, such as Latin and Arabic.
Efforts to encode other African scripts, including minority scripts and major historical writing systems like Egyptian hieroglyphsare being coordinated by the Script Encoding Initiative.Writing African History (paperback). Writing African History is an essential work for anyone who wants to write, or even seriously read, African history.
Historic African American Churches The African American Church has long been considered one of the foundational and most influential institutions in black America. Writing African History. Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria () John Edward Phillips; Saheed Aderinto, Western Carolina University; Link Find in your library Keywords.
History, methodology; Disciplines. African History; Publication Date. Citation Information. John Edward Phillips and Saheed Aderinto.
The writing systems of Africa refer to the current and historical practice of writing systems on the African continent, both indigenous and those introduced.
Today, the Latin script is commonly encountered across Africa, especially Sub-Saharan Africa. Arabic script is mainly used in North Africa and Ge'ez/Ethiopic script is dominant in the Horn of Africa.
Regionally and in some localities, other scripts may be of . The history of slavery spans many cultures, nationalities, and religions from ancient times to the present day.
However the social, economic, and legal positions of slaves were vastly different in different systems of slavery in different times and places.
Slavery appears in the Mesopotamian Code of Hammurabi (c. BC), which refers to it as an established institution. Black History Facts & Worksheets Black history is the portion of American history that specifically discusses the African-American or Black American ethnic groups in the United States.
Most African Americans are the descendants of African slaves brought to the United States from to