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Here is your short essay on Gender inequality Ruchismita Advertisements: In Sociology the word gender refers to the socio-cultural characterization of man and woman, the way societies make a distinction between men and women and assign them social roles.
The distinction between sex and gender was introduced to deal with the general tendency to attribute women's subordination to their anatomy.
For ages it was believed that the different characteristics, roles and status accorded to women and men in society are determined by sex, that they are natural and therefore not changeable. Gender is seen closely related to the roles and behavior assigned to women and men based on their sexual differences.
As soon as a child is born families and society begin the process of gendering. The birth of the son is celebrated, the birth of a daughter filled with pain; sons are showered with love, respect, better food and proper health care.
Boys are encouraged to be tough and outgoing; girls are encouraged to be homebound and shy. All these differences are gender differences and they are created by society. Gender inequality is therefore a form of inequality which is distinct from other forms of economic and social inequalities.
It dwells not only outside the household but also centrally within it.
It stems not only from pre-existing differences in economic endowments between women and men but also from pre-existing gendered social norms and social perceptions. Gender inequality has adverse impact on development goals as reduces economic growth.
It hampers the overall well being because blocking women from participation in social, political and economic activities can adversely affect the whole society.
Many developing countries including India have displayed gender inequality in education, employment and health. It is common to find girls and women suffering from high mortality rates. There are vast differences in education level of two sexes. India has witnessed gender inequality from its early history due to its socio-economic and religious practices that resulted in a wide gap between the position of men and women in the society.
The origin of the Indian idea of appropriate female behavior can be traced to the rules laid down by Manu in B. Statistics reveal that in India males significantly outnumber females arid this imbalance has increased over time. The sex ratio according to census report stands at per males.
Out of the total population, million are women who live in abject poverty. The maternal mortality rate in rural areas is among the world's highest. The deaths of young girls in India exceed those of young boys by overeach year and every 6th infant death is specifically due to gender discrimination.
Women face discrimination right from the childhood. Gender disparities in nutrition are evident from infancy to adulthood. In fact, gender has been the most statistically significant determinant of malnutrition among young children and malnutrition is a frequent, direct or underlying, cause of death among girls below age 5.
Girls are breast-fed less frequently and for a shorter duration in infancy. In childhood and adulthood, males are fed first and better.
Adult women consume approximately 1, fewer calories per day than men according to one estimate. Nutritional deprivation has two majorconsequences for women they never reach their full growth potential, and suffer from anemia, which are risk factors in pregnancy. This condition complicates childbearing and results in women and infant deaths, and low birth weight infants.
The tradition also requires that women eat last and least throughout their lives even when pregnant and lactating. Malnourished women give birth to malnourished: Women receive less healthcare facilities than men.
A primary way that parents discriminate against their girl children is through neglect during illness. As an adult they tend to be less likely to admit that they are sick and may wait until their sickness has progressed far before they seek help or help is sought for them.
Many women in rural areas die in childbirth due to easily preventable complications. Women's social training to put up with suffering and their unwillingness to be examined by male personnel are additional constraints in their getting sufficient health care.
The Constitution of India ensures gender equality in its preamble as a fundamental right but also empowers the state to adopt measures of positive discrimination in favor of women by ways of legislation and policies.LOUIS ARMSTRONG.
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