The Definitive Resource and Document Collection spans nearly 1, pages presented in four volumes and includes more than primary source documents, making it ideal for high school and beginning college students studying modern genocide as part of a larger world history curriculum.
Stanton, President, Genocide Watch Classification Symbolization Dehumanization Organization Polarization Preparation Extermination Denial Genocide is a process that develops in eight stages that are predictable but not inexorable. At each stage, preventive Modern genocide can stop it.
The process is not linear. But all stages continue to operate throughout the process. German and Jew, Hutu and Tutsi. Bipolar societies that lack mixed categories, such as Rwanda and Burundi, are the most likely to have genocide. The main preventive measure at this early stage is to develop universalistic institutions that transcend ethnic or racial divisions, that actively promote tolerance and understanding, and that promote classifications that transcend the divisions.
The Catholic church could have played this role in Rwanda, had it not been riven Modern genocide the same ethnic cleavages as Rwandan society.
Promotion of a common language in countries like Tanzania has also promoted transcendent national identity. This search for common ground is vital to early prevention of genocide. We give names or other symbols to the classifications.
Classification and symbolization are universally human and do not necessarily result in genocide unless they lead to the next stage, dehumanization.
When combined with hatred, symbols may be forced upon unwilling members of pariah groups: To combat symbolization, hate symbols can be legally forbidden swastikas as can hate speech.
Group marking like gang clothing or tribal scarring can be outlawed, as well. The problem is that legal limitations will fail if unsupported by popular cultural enforcement. If widely supported, however, denial of symbolization can be powerful, as it was in Bulgaria, where the government refused to supply enough yellow badges and at least eighty percent of Jews did not wear them, depriving the yellow star of its significance as a Nazi symbol for Jews.
One group denies the humanity of the other group. Members of it are equated with animals, vermin, insects or diseases. Dehumanization overcomes the normal human revulsion against murder. At this stage, hate propaganda in print and on hate radios is used to vilify the victim group.
In combating this dehumanization, incitement to genocide should not be confused with protected speech. Genocidal societies lack constitutional protection for countervailing speech, and should be treated differently than democracies.
Local and international leaders should condemn the use of hate speech and make it culturally unacceptable. Leaders who incite genocide should be banned from international travel and have their foreign finances frozen.
Hate radio stations should be shut down, and hate propaganda banned. Hate crimes and atrocities should be promptly punished. Genocide is always organized, usually by the state, often using militias to provide deniability of state responsibility the Janjaweed in Darfur.
Sometimes organization is informal Hindu mobs led by local RSS militants or decentralized terrorist groups. Special army units or militias are often trained and armed. Plans are made for genocidal killings.
To combat this stage, membership in these militias should be outlawed. Their leaders should be denied visas for foreign travel.
Extremists drive the groups apart. Hate groups broadcast polarizing propaganda. Laws may forbid intermarriage or social interaction. Extremist terrorism targets moderates, intimidating and silencing the center.
Prevention may mean security protection for moderate leaders or assistance to human rights groups. Assets of extremists may be seized, and visas for international travel denied to them. Victims are identified and separated out because of their ethnic or religious identity. Death lists are drawn up.
Members of victim groups are forced to wear identifying symbols. Their property is expropriated. They are often segregated into ghettoes, deported into concentration camps, or confined to a famine-struck region and starved.
At this stage, a Genocide Emergency must be declared.Genocide ensued and the remaining Hutus fled to Rwanda. In the initial phases of the killings there were clear signs of a structured campaign on behalf of one group against another.
First the educated elite of the Hutu population was murdered. 'Genocide and International Relations' lays the foundations for a new perspective on genocide in the modern world. Genocide studies have been influenced, negatively as well as positively, by the political and cultural context in which the field has developed.
Sep 28, · News about War Crimes, Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times. The past genocides and mass atrocities described below represent just some of the historic examples that serve to remind us what’s at stake if we let genocide happen again.
We must learn, remember and take action to end genocide once and for all. 33 rows · This list of genocides by death toll includes death toll estimates of all deaths . The past genocides and mass atrocities described below represent just some of the historic examples that serve to remind us what’s at stake if we let genocide happen again.
We must learn, remember and take action to end genocide once and for all. Armenia. Armenia.