However, much has happened since it went up, including the Blogger outage. Scroll down for a report on that.
Definitions[ edit ] There is no universally accepted definition of radicalization. Therefore, no one definition can be presented here. One of the difficulties with defining radicalization appears to be the importance of the context to determine what is perceived as radicalization.
Therefore, radicalization can mean different things to different people. This may include helping young people find jobs, better integrating immigrant populations into the local culture, and effectively reintegrating ex-prisoners into society.
While radical thinking is by no means problematic in itself, it House readiness checkpoint a threat to national security when Canadian citizens or residents espouse or engage in violence or direct action as a means of promoting political, ideological or religious extremism.
Shira Fishman, a researcher at the National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorismwrote "Radicalization is a dynamic process that varies for each individual, but shares some underlying commonalities that can be explored.
Islamic radicalization[ edit ] Jihadis have a "tried and tested model" of contact with different vulnerableand extremist individuals through online messaging services or social media platforms, and then rapidly manipulating them towards participating in violent action in their name.
Abdul Haqq Baker developed the Convert's Cognitive Development Framework that describes how new converts conceptualize Islam and the stages where they are most vulnerable to radicalization. When those groups decide to use violence, they also enjoy a heightened level of lethality and are protected from defection and other forms of intervention by states and outside groups.
All organizations insofar as they include the House readiness checkpoint of free riders by extension experience defection constraints. Within the context of a violent extremist organization, defection means either defection to a counterintelligence or security apparatus, or defection to a non-radical criminal apparatus.
Both of these outcomes spoil specific plans to exercise violence in the name of the group at large. Berman uses the example of a Taliban protection racket for convoys of consumer goods moving through Afghanistan: The same dynamic applies to House readiness checkpoint while an individual in a terrorist group may not feel drawn by the reward of alerting the police to an impending low level crime, the reward for alerting the police to an impending high-profile attack, such as a mass bombing, becomes more attractive.
While non-radicalized and criminal organizations can only rely on organizational cohesion through a calculus of greed, fear, and perhaps familial loyalty, Berman argues that religious radicalization greatly increases the defection constraints of radical terrorist organizations by requiring outsized demonstrations of commitment to the cause prior to recruiting operatives.
Mutual aid is the voluntary and reciprocal exchange of goods within an organization. Examples in various religious antecedents include Judaic TzedakahIslamic Zakatand various Christian institutions of charity, as described in the Acts of the Apostles.
Berman argues that religious organizations experience economic risks by extending mutual aid to all alleged believers—theological assent is cheap, action can be costly.
By imposing a series of outwardly visible social rules, such as restrictions or prescriptions on dress, diet, language, and social interactions, groups impose a cost on entering into a mutual aid partnership, diminishing the occurrence of free riding. These restrictions have a dual effect in radical groups.
As individuals become more involved with radical activities, their social circles become more constrained, which diminishes contact with non-radicalized persons and further entrenches radicalized thinking. For example, when a young man spends several years in a Yeshiva in order to establish himself within a Haredi community, he foregoes future earnings that would be accessible should he choose a secular education.
Going back to the Taliban convoy example, not only have the two footsoldiers in question have been vetted by demonstrating commitment to the cause, they also have had their exterior options limited such that it would be difficult to blend into a new environment for lack of skills and cultural understanding.
As such, the threshold price point to defect, as represented by the value of the convoy, increases to include both the price of losing their existing support network and non-quantifiable factors such as friends, family, safety, and other goods over the course of their lives.
Individual pathways[ edit ] While the overall arch of radicalization usually involves multiple, reinforcing processes, scholars have identified a series of individual pathways to radicalization.
How Radicalization Happens to Them and Us identifies the following sociological and psychodynamic pathways: Personal grievance[ edit ] This pathway emphasizes revenge for real or perceived harm inflicted upon oneself by an outside party.
This initial offense triggers other psychodynamic mechanisms, such as thinking in more stark in-group and out-group terms, lowered inhibitions to violence, and lessened incentives to avoid violence. Group grievance[ edit ] "Group grievance" radicalization dynamics are similar to those that are primed by personal grievances; the difference is that the subject perceives harm inflicted on a group that she belongs to or has sympathy for.
This pathway accounts for the larger portion of political and ethnic radical violence, in which action is taken on behalf of the group at large rather than as an act of personal revenge. Radicalization out of sympathy for an outgroup is rarer, but can be observed in the Weather Underground's attempted alignment with the Black Panthers and Viet Cong.
The tie between radicalization into violent extremism through group grievance and suicide bombing has also been quantifiably demonstrated: As an individual commits act after act, sunk costs are developed. Even if activity is initially only ideological or only criminal, the process of radicalization conflates the two such that criminal acts are justified for intellectually radical purposes, and radical purposes are invoked to justify what are ultimately criminal acts.
Several violent extremist organizations, especially at their origin, owe their structure to a tight-knit group of friends who share religious, economic, social, and sexual bonds.
While this example is evident in more extreme cases, such as those of Charles Manson 's "Family" and other radical cultsit also applies to radicalization in secular and orthodox religious environments.
Love can serve as a connection between influential figures, connecting their networks of followers through a combination of attraction and loyalty.
The connections between Bill Ayers and Bernardine Dohrnor between Gudrun Ensslin and Andreas Baader served as the organizational and intellectual nucleus of these groups.
Risk and status[ edit ] Within a radical group, high-risk behavior, if successful, offers a pathway to status insofar as it becomes re-construed as bravery and commitment to the cause. As such, violence or other radical activity provides a pathway to success, social acceptance, and physical rewards that might otherwise be out of reach.
Disproportionate involvement in risk taking and status seeking is particularly true of those young men who come from disadvantaged family backgrounds, have lower IQ levels, are of lower socioeconomic status, and who therefore have less opportunity to succeed in society along a traditional career path.
These young men are more likely to be involved in gang activity, violent crime, and other high-risk behavior.XECO Week 1 A New House – Readiness. Deciding to buy a house is a lifelong goal for many people. Imagine that you are renting a studio apartment and have just discovered you are having a baby.
The DHS Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Terms (DAAT) list contains homeland security related acronyms, abbreviations, and terms that can be found in DHS documents, reports, and the FEMA Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Terms (FAAT) list.
Deep Creek Times is THE local online source for Deep Creek Lake news, events, weather, photos, the rutadeltambor.com! program and more! New House Readiness Kathleen Jones XECO/ November 1, George Tsilis A New House Readiness Although I saw buying a house in my future, it is a purchase published this no reads.
the House Committee on Armed Services by December 1, that assesses: a) whether the National Security Education Program meets the current need for language and culture training so that warfighters and national security. For more course tutorials visit rutadeltambor.com CheckPoint: A New House – Readiness Deciding to buy a house is a lifelong goal for many people.
Imagine that you are renting a studio apartment.