September 20, Spread the love The name of the Victorian style in architecture naturally comes from the middle years of 19th century when Her Majesty Queen Victorian has been crowned as a queen of Britain. In fact the term is a definition of a certain style that has raised during that period, but in fact it includes a wide variety of sub-styles.
Roots[ edit ] The rise of Evangelicalism in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries saw in England a reaction in the High church movement which sought to emphasise the continuity between the established church and the pre- Reformation Catholic church.
The Gothic Revival was also paralleled and supported by " medievalism ", which had its roots in antiquarian concerns with survivals and curiosities. As " industrialisation " progressed, a reaction against machine production and the appearance of factories also grew.
Proponents of the picturesque such as Thomas Carlyle and Augustus Pugin took a critical view of industrial society and portrayed pre-industrial medieval society as a golden age. To Pugin, Gothic architecture was infused with the Christian values that had been supplanted by classicism and were being destroyed by industrialisation.
Poems such as " Idylls of the King " by Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson recast specifically modern themes in medieval settings of Arthurian romance.
In German literaturethe Gothic Revival also had a grounding in literary fashions. Guarino Guarinia 17th-century Theatine monk active primarily in Turinrecognized the "Gothic order" as one of the primary systems of architecture and made use of it in his practice.
It set the "Strawberry Hill Gothic" style. In the midth century, with the rise of Romanticisman increased interest and awareness of the Middle Ages among some influential connoisseurs created a more appreciative approach to selected medieval arts, beginning with church architecture, the tomb monuments of royal and noble personages, stained glass, and late Gothic illuminated manuscripts.
Other Gothic arts, such as tapestries and metalwork, continued to be disregarded as barbaric and crude, however sentimental and nationalist associations with historical figures were as strong in this early revival as purely aesthetic concerns.
By the s, thoroughly neoclassical architects such as Robert Adam and James Wyatt were prepared to provide Gothic details in drawing-rooms, libraries and chapels and William Beckford's romantic vision of a Example of the 19th century architecture abbey, Fonthill Abbey in Wiltshire.
Inveraray Castleconstructed fromwith design input from William Adamdisplays the incorporation of turrets. These were largely conventional Palladian style houses that incorporated some external features of the Scots baronial style.
A younger generation, taking Gothic architecture more seriously, provided the readership for John Britton's series Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain, which began appearing in Its long antique title is descriptive: Attempt to discriminate the styles of English architecture from the Conquest to the Reformation; preceded by a sketch of the Grecian and Roman orders, with notices of nearly five hundred English buildings.
It went through numerous editions, was still being republished byand has been reissued in the 21st century. Churches all over in the countries that were influenced by the Gothic Revival, small and large, whether isolated in small settlements or in the big city, there is at least one church done in Gothic Revival style.
Major examples of Gothic cathedrals in the U. Alban in northwest Washington, D. Gothic Revival architecture was to remain one of the most popular and long-lived of the many revival styles of architecture. Only when new materials, like steel and glass along with concern for function in everyday working life and saving space in the cities, meaning the need to build up instead of out, began to take hold did the Gothic Revival start to disappear from popular building requests.
Classical Gothic buildings of the 12th to 16th Centuries were a source of inspiration to 19th-century designers in numerous fields of work. Architectural elements such as pointed arches, steep-sloping roofs and fancy carvings like lace and lattice work were applied to a wide range of Gothic Revival objects.
Some examples of Gothic Revivals influence can be found in heraldic motifs in coats of arms, painted furniture with elaborate painted scenes like the  whimsical Gothic detailing in English furniture is traceable as far back as Lady Pomfret 's house in Arlington Street, London sand Gothic fretwork in chairbacks and glazing patterns of bookcases is a familiar feature of Chippendale 's Director, where, for example, the three-part bookcase employs Gothic details with Rococo profusion, on a symmetrical form.
Parties in medieval historical dress and entertainment were popular among the wealthy in the s but has spread in the late 20th century to the well-educated middle class as well.
The illustrated catalogue for the Great Exhibition of is replete with Gothic detail, from lacemaking and carpet designs to heavy machinery. In8, British crown coins were minted in proof condition with the design using an ornate reverse in keeping with the revived style.
Considered by collectors to be particularly beautiful, they are known as 'Gothic crowns'. The design was repeated inagain in proof.
A similar two shilling coin, the 'Gothic florin ' was minted for circulation from to Gothic architecture was sometimes known during the medieval period as the "Opus Francigenum", the "French Art".
French scholar Alexandre de Laborde wrote in that "Gothic architecture has beauties of its own",  which marked the beginning of the Gothic Revival in France. The following year Victor Hugo 's historical romance novel The Hunchback of Notre-Dame appeared, in which the great Gothic cathedral of Paris was at once a setting and a protagonist in a hugely popular work of fiction.
Hugo intended his book to awaken a concern for the surviving Gothic architecture left in Europe, however, rather than to initiate a craze for neo-Gothic in contemporary life.
The s "Romantic" movement brought back interest, and work began once more insignificantly marking a German return of Gothic architecture.
The Prague cathedral was also completed late. The English boldly coined the term "Early English" for "Gothic", a term that implied Gothic architecture was an English creation. In his edition of Notre Dame de Paris, author Victor Hugo said "Let us inspire in the nation, if it is possible, love for the national architecture", implying that "Gothic" is France's national heritage.20th-century architecture The Modernist movement Before World War II Europe.
The Modernist movement in architecture was an attempt to create a nonhistorical architecture of Functionalism in which a new sense of space would be created with the help of modern materials. The Carson Mansion is a spectacular Victorian house in the Eureka Old Town, California.
It is widely considered a prime example of the American Queen Anne style architecture which was popular in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th century. Another dimension of architecture for which examples from the 19th century are prevalent and easy to spot can be seen in the houses that architects build for themselves.
One such house was the Bloemenwerf House on the outskirts of Brussels, Belgium. Whilst the architect, mainly employed by cultured clients with Classical tastes, had no doubt that 'Classical' was the right form of architecture, the architects of the 19th century had no such certainty - nor the clients with the same formed tastes.
* The 19th century heralded the arrival of the Industrial Revolution, which wrought unprecedented socioeconomic and technological changes in England, transforming it into a modern industrial society.
This essay examines the impact that these changes have had on the design and construction of two new building types, namely the railway station . Architecture - Residential Architecture of the 19th and 20th Centuries Few examples of pure styles exist. Before , the major design resource for builders were pattern books that illustrated plans and elevations of buildings.
Often houses were built with parts from more than one 20th Century Architecture.