These words may seem straightforward, easily understandable, and maybe even seem to have very little to do with world history, but sadly that is a false statement.
These civilizations appear to have developed in response to their environment and in reaction to their human need for survival and security. The first human civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indus River Valley, and China but not Mesoamerica all developed around rivers; as such they were called alluvial, or located in the plains surrounding a river.
For Mesopotamia and Egypt, controlling where the water went, using irrigation, was critical to their survival. Irrigation allowed water to be used farther away from the river itself, thereby allowing more people to use the river water.
Plus, controlling the flood water was a necessity. The people of these alluvial or river societies became so dependent on the rivers that they developed much of their culture and society around it. This is not where the agricultural revolution began, however.
Farming began in the Fertile Crescent in about B. The highest concentrations of villages were along the Jordon River Valley in Palestine. The people of Mesopotamia came from the Compare and contrast indus and china civilization north of Mesopotamia where they farmed without irrigation.
The population growth in the hills forced people to migrate to the plains where there was insufficient water for farming without irrigation. The weather was hot and dry in the summer and cold in the winter.
The annual floods caused anyone trying to live there to flee to higher ground. Thus, the people who were pushed out of the hilly farm land and forced to figure out a way to make a living out of the desert.
They built small canals from the feeder streams of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. In order to protect against flooding, they built levees on the river banks so that the water could rise higher before flooding and they dug ditches and canals to channel the water to the fields.
Later in their development of irrigation, they invented water-lifting devices to lift the water from the river. In pioneering water storage, Mesopotamians were the first hydraulic engineers. It was not until the Sumerians started building artificial mounds and built walls around the city did they begin to have any protection from the floods.
One of the first Mesopotamian cities, Uruk, had 5-miles of fortified walls. Before the walled cities citadels existed, people needed to keep fleeing to the hills when the floods arrived. With the walled cities, the people had a layer of protection from the floods in case the unpredictable flood waters rose above the natural levees.
Later, they learned to build dikes to hold back the flood waters closer to the Persian Gulf into which the rivers flowed and they learned to build canals to channel that dammed flood water to farms where it was needed.
The most important possession, the temple zigguratwas built on an artificial mound that offered further security from the sometimes overzealous flooding. In order to have organized manpower, an organizer was necessary. This is where religion played a major role.
Each city-state had its own deity. Thus, it is evident that even the religion was created based on environmental influences.
Thus a hierarchy of leaders and religious officials developed. In addition, technology was necessary for this successful canal network. Another step in the development of Mesopotamian civilization was their invention of the wooden plow, which allowed them to till a wider variety of soils more quickly than before the plow.
Then, they discovered bronze, which is a combination of copper and tin, that is stronger than either of the two ingredients separately. The Mesopotamians used this bronze to make their plows even more efficient. The production of such technology required artisans such as metal workers.
The agricultural surplus produced by this complex system paid for the rulers, priests, and artisans. What made this area particularly suitable for the development of a civilization, besides the water, soil and sunshine, was its location in an easily accessible area, not surrounded by mountains.
This openness allowed for trade with other civilizations that developed later, such as the Indus Valley city of Mohenjo-Daro.
The agricultural surplus along with the trade allowed cities to develop. They bartered grain, vegetable oil and leather with one another and with foreign regions, from which they acquired natural resources not found in Sumer, such as metals, timber, and precious stones. Sumerian traders travelled as far east as India, sailing for weeks to reach that distant land.
Egypt too is protected from outsiders by the Sahara Desert on their western border. The irrigation development necessary for farming thus forced the people to develop a complex society in which cooperation was required.
Thus, out of the adversity of being forced to live in a lifeless desert, came a budding civilization.Below is an essay on "Compare Ancient China and Indus Valley Civiliations" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.
The wide land of Asia cultivated many cultures, among which, two of the first, also the greatest civilizations are ancient India and China /5(1). Sep 24, · Compare and Contrast -- Indus Valley and China Though 3, miles away, the Chinese and Indus Valley are very much alike—in terms of politics and religion.
Both civilizations demonstrate a centralized state, but the Chinese centralized state was more prominent than the Indus Valley, due to archeological research. Topic: Comparing and Contrasting ancient China, India, Mesopotamia, and Egypt, River Valley Civilization: Silk, hieroglyphics, polytheism, architects, and even plumbing; what do these simple words mean to the world and to some of the world’s most important historical civilizations to ever rutadeltambor.coms: Dec 28, · The purpose of this paper is to compare the developments and features of the early civilizations of Mesopotamia (Sumer), Egypt, India (Indus River Valley, Harappa), China (Shang dynasty), and Mesoamerica (Olmec), starting from the creation of villages to the formation of civilizations.
China, Indus, Mesopotamia, and Egypt China had a monarchy government and its main crops grown were wheat, rice, corn, and soy beans. Government in Indus was a basis of religion and trade took place in the civilization.
Compare and Contrast. Only Egypt was separated into Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms. All four civilizations created some type of writing system for their language. Indus and China went through times where their main religion was Buddhism.
had important mathematical advances.