There has never been a major test though. I have been very surprised by what I have been reading. I cannot believe the difference in what different scientists think.
Types[ edit ] Resistance to chemicals is only one aspect of the problem, another being resistance to physical factors such as temperature, pressure, sound, radiation and magnetism, and not discussed in this article, but found at Physical factors affecting microbial life.
Drug, toxin, or chemical resistance is a consequence of evolution and is a response to pressures imposed on any living organism.
Individual organisms vary in their sensitivity to the drug used and some with greater fitness may be capable of surviving drug treatment. Drug-resistant traits are accordingly inherited by subsequent offspring, resulting in a population that is more drug-resistant. Unless the drug used makes sexual reproduction or cell-division or horizontal gene transfer impossible in the entire target population, resistance to the drug will inevitably follow.
This can be seen in cancerous tumors where some cells may develop resistance to the drugs used in chemotherapy. This protein stimulates the growth of cancer cells which are drug-resistant.
A rapid process of sharing resistance exists among single-celled organismsand is termed horizontal gene transfer in which there is a direct exchange of genes, particularly in the biofilm state.
Examples of drug-resistant strains are to be found in microorganisms  such as bacteria and viruses, parasites both endo- and ecto-plants, fungi, arthropods  mammals,  birds,  reptiles,  fish, and amphibians.
Alteration of target site: Alteration of metabolic pathway: Instead, like mammalian cells, they turn to utilizing preformed folic acid. Metabolic cost[ edit ] Biological cost is a measure of the increased energy metabolism required to achieve a function. Drug resistance has a high metabolic price  in pathogens for which this concept is relevant bacteria,  endoparasites, and tumor cells.
In viruses, an equivalent "cost" is genomic complexity. If MDR1 is overexpressed, drug resistance increases.
For example, bacterial resistance against beta-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin and cephalosporins can be circumvented by using antibiotics such as nafcillin that are not susceptible to destruction by certain beta-lactamases the group of enzymes responsible for breaking down beta-lactams.Drug resistance is the reduction in effectiveness of a medication such as an antimicrobial or an antineoplastic in treating a disease or condition.
The term is used in the context of resistance that pathogens or cancers have "acquired", that is, resistance has evolved. Antimicrobial resistance and antineoplastic resistance challenge clinical care and drive research.
“Cancer”, its a disease that has claim the lives of millions, its a disease that so far has no known cure, and its a disease that has many different forms.
Cancer is defined as “a malignant form of tumors, which are tissue masses that arise through mutations in the genes that govern cell. Free Essay: Colon Cancer What is the disease?
Colon and rectal cancer develop in the digestive tract, which is also called the gastrointestinal, or GI. The orchidectomy or orchiectomy procedure is a surgical procedure where the testicles are removed.
This is done because it is an effective method of lowering the man's testosterone level. Pancoast syndrome is the term given to the unique set of symptoms that accompany a Pancoast tumor - a type of lung cancer.
Pancoast tumors are a type of non-small cell cancer that account for less.
Cancer is defined as “a malignant form of tumors, which are tissue masses that arise through mutations in the genes that govern cell growth and division” (Starr, , p. ). Skin cancer is just one of the many forms of cancer that effects us and is the most common cancer in the U.S. La Boucherie Restaurant is a French global chain restaurant that serves steaks, burgers, salads, popular French desserts and more! After driving by the other day, we saw the signs out where the old Graffiti Junction used to be in the Fitness CF plaza off of Turkey Lake Road. Prostate cancer is a form of cancer that develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. Most prostate cancers are slow growing; however, there are cases of aggressive prostate cancers..
This is an unedited sample of PA school essay submissions, meant to provide you with some insight into how other applicants are approaching their CASPA personal statements.