After England ceased to be the chief source of immigration. Thousands of refugees fled continental Europe to escape the path of war. Many left their homelands to avoid the poverty induced by government oppression and absentee-landlordism.
Visit Website But between and a series of interconnected developments occurred in Europe that provided the impetus for the exploration and subsequent colonization of America. These developments included the Protestant Reformation and the subsequent Catholic Counter-Reformation, the Renaissance, the unification of small states into larger ones with centralized political power, the emergence of new technology in navigation and shipbuilding, and the establishment of overland trade with the East and the accompanying transformation of the medieval economy.
Protestantism emphasized a personal relationship between each individual and God without the need for intercession by the institutional church. Thus, the rise of Protestantism and the Counter-Reformation, along with the Renaissance, helped foster individualism and create a climate favorable to exploration.
At the same time, political centralization ended much of the squabbling and fighting among rival noble families and regions that had characterized the Middle Ages.
With the decline of the political power and wealth of the Catholic church, a few rulers gradually solidified their power. Portugal, Spain, France, and England were transformed from small territories into nation-states with centralized authority in the hands of monarchs who were able to direct and finance overseas exploration.
As these religious and political changes were occurring, technological innovations in navigation set the stage for exploration.
Bigger, faster ships and the invention of navigational devices such as the astrolabe and sextant made extended voyages possible. But the most powerful inducement to exploration was trade. The Orient became a magnet to traders, and exotic products and wealth flowed into Europe.
Those who benefited most were merchants who sat astride the great overland trade routes, especially the merchants of the Italian city-states of Genoa, Venice, and Florence. The newly unified states of the Atlantic—France, Spain, England, and Portugal—and their ambitious monarchs were envious of the merchants and princes who dominated the land routes to the East.
The desire to supplant the trade moguls, especially the Italians, and fear of the Ottoman Empire forced the Atlantic nations to search for a new route to the East.
Portugal Portugal led the others into exploration. Encouraged by Prince Henry the Navigator, Portuguese seamen sailed southward along the African coast, seeking a water route to the East. They were also looking for a legendary king named Prester John who had supposedly built a Christian stronghold somewhere in northwestern Africa.
Henry hoped to form an alliance with Prester John to fight the Muslims. His school developed the quadrant, the cross-staff, and the compass, made advances in cartography, and designed and built highly maneuverable little ships known as caravels.
Dias sailed around the tip of Africa and into the Indian Ocean before his frightened crew forced him to give up the quest.
A year later, Vasco da Gama succeeded in reaching India and returned to Portugal laden with jewels and spices. Born in Genoa, Italy, aroundColumbus learned the art of navigation on voyages in the Mediterranean and the Atlantic.- Colonization of America Although New England and the Chesapeake region were both settled by people of English origin, by the regions have evolved into two new distinct societies.
Why did this difference in development occur. Watch video · The first English settlement in North America had actually been established some 20 years before, in , when a group of colonists (91 men, 17 women and nine children) led by Sir Walter Raleigh settled on the island of Roanoke.
Mysteriously, by the Roanoke colony had vanished entirely. CHAPTER 2: The Colonial Period. An Outline of American History "What then is the American, this new man?" one-third of all vessels under the British flag were built in New England.
Fish, ship's stores and wooden ware swelled the exports. Their talent for successful business enterprise made the city one of the thriving centers of.
The religious history of the United States began with the first Pilgrim settlers who came on the Mayflower in Their Puritan faith motivated their move from Europe. The Spanish set up a network of Catholic missions in California, but they had all closed decades before when California became part of the U.S.
The history of the 13 American colonies that would become the first 13 states of the United States dates to when Christopher Columbus discovered what he thought was a New World, but was really North America, which along with its indigenous population and culture, had been there all along.
In this way, two countries in North America, ten in the Caribbean, and one in South America have received their independence from Great Britain or the later United Kingdom. All of these, except the United States, are members of the Commonwealth of Nations and nine are Commonwealth realms.